M84, M86 – Markarian's Chain

It is a stretch of galaxies that forms part of the Virgo Cluster. When viewed from Earth, the galaxies lie along a smoothly curved line. Member galaxies include M84 (NGC 4374), M86 (NGC 4406), NGC 4477, NGC 4473, NGC 4461, NGC 4458, NGC 4438 and NGC 4435.

M86 (NGC 4406) is an elliptical or lenticular galaxy (bottom left zoom – bigger object) in the constellation Virgo.

NGC 4402 (bottom left zoom – smaller object) is a relatively near, edge-on spiral galaxy located around 50 million light-years from Earth. It is in the constellation of Virgo within the Virgo Cluster of galaxies. NGC 4402 is roughly 55 thousand light-years wide and is moving away from Earth at around 232 kilometers per second. It is falling into the Virgo galaxy cluster.

Łańcuch Markariana (+ramki) - łańcuch galaktyk należący do Gromady w Pannie.

NGC 4438 (bottom right zoom) is the most curious interacting galaxy in the Virgo Cluster, due to the uncertainty surrounding the energy mechanism that heats the nuclear source; this energy mechanism may be a starburst region, or a black hole-powered active galactic nucleus (AGN). Both hypotheses are currently under investigation by astronomers.

NGC 4388 (upper left zoom – bigger object) is an active spiral galaxy located in the Virgo Cluster. NGC 4388 is also considered to be one of the brightest galaxies in the Virgo Cluster due to its luminous nucleus.

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Markarian%27s_Chain , https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Messier_86 , https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NGC_4402 , https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eyes_Galaxies , https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NGC_4388

Photographs (March 2019) made in Zwardoń. A standard place of meetings of the Polish association of astronomy enthusiasts – Katowice dep.
Equipment: Canon EOS 6D, Sky-Watcher 200/1000 [mm] on the NEQ6 Pro. and Lacerta autoguider.

Stack: APP (6 best frames)
Processing: GIMP v2.10.14 + add-ons (Linux)
Lights: 6 x 118[s], ISO-1600; 30.3.2019
Flats: 1 ISO-1600; 30.3.2019
Bias: 20 ISO-1600; 02.8.2019


M71 (NGC 6838)

M71 (NGC 6838) is a globular cluster in the constellation Sagitta.
The star cluster is at a distance of about 12,000 light years away from Earth and spans some 27 light years across.

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Messier_71

Photographs (March 2019) made in Zwardoń. A standard place of meetings of the Polish association of astronomy enthusiasts – Katowice dep.
Equipment: Canon EOS 6D, Sky-Watcher 200/1000 [mm] on the NEQ6 Pro. and Lacerta autoguider.

Stack: APP (6 best frames)
Processing: GIMP v2.10.14 + add-ons (Linux)
Lights: 6 x 118[s], ISO-1600; 30.3.2019
Flats: 1 ISO-1600; 30.3.2019
Bias: 20 ISO-1600; 02.8.2019

M71 (NGC 6838)

M42 (NGC 1976) – Great Nebula in Orion

Image processing improvement skills in progress. Below you can see a photo for comparison, that it is really worth improving own skills in image processing and it does not necessarily have to be done with paid PixInside, which will do 80% of the work automatically for the user. You can do the whole process yourself and acquire new skills. Important itself is that, the picture processed has a reflected “face” of the author, which is not meaningless in today’s world.

Interesting fact – At that time, when I was catching photons, I didn’t do any FLAT frame. Common opinion says that flat frames should be done in the same session as light frames. Making the necessary flat frames at a different time (the configuration of the entire equipment setting is different from the equipment configuration for the light frames made) will cause you to fail.

Naturally I am very inquisitive person and I did an experiment. I didn’t have a flat for lights done earlier, so I did flat frames with same ISO like light frames at 1st August this year at the PTMA meeting in Zwardoń. I remembered that my camera frame position was relative to the tube in only two positions. Perpendicular to the length of the tube or parallel. I made flat frames for both positions and used them one by one position successively in the stacking process. I saw that the flat frames matched almost perfectly with light frames. The difference between old image processed without flat can be clearly seen in the pictures below with flat frame.

On the left, photo taken in April this year and on the right, processed at 09.12.2019 + flats made at 1st August 2019.

M42 ( NGC 1976) – Wielka Mgławica w Orionie

Does my experiment contradict popular opinion? In my opinion, yes.
My advice: if you do not have flat frames and you have collected great material earlier, then make a flat frames. Time and place is not important. It is important that the equipment should be the same and the configuration of the layout and position should be only close to how the light frames were made.

At that time, I was testing the autoguider Mgen Lacerta on this nebula, and as you can see it did a good job. At that time I did not have a coma corrector (optical defect correction) as seen at the edges of the photo. My NEQ6Pro mount was still working on gears (original solution).

For my new friends on FB, for information:

M42 (NGC 1976) – Great Nebula in Orion – The brightest nebula on the sky located in the Orion constellation, south direction from Orion belt. The diameter of the nebula is 30 light years. The distance from Earth is 1344 thousand light years.

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orion_Nebula

Photographs (March 2019) made in Zwardoń. A standard place of meetings of the Polish association of astronomy enthusiasts – Katowice dep.
Equipment: Canon EOS 6D, Sky-Watcher 200/1000 [mm] on the NEQ6 Pro. and Lacerta autoguider.

  • Stack: APP (44 best frames),
  • Processing: GIMP v2.10.14 + add-ons (Linux),
  • Lights: 44 x 38[s], ISO-1000; 30.3.2019,
  • Flats: 22 ISO-1000; 01.8.2019,
  • Bias: 20 ISO-1000; 02.8.2019
M42 ( NGC 1976) – Wielka Mgławica w Orionie

M39 (NGC 7092) – An open cluster in the constellation of Swan

It is located about 825 light years (about 253 parsecs) from Earth, approaching at a speed of 28 km / [s]. The diameter is approximately 7 light years. The observed brightness is 4.6 M. According to various estimates, the age of the cluster is 230 to 300 million years. M39 contains about 50-100 stars.

Under good seeng, the cluster can be seen with the naked eye. In most cases, small binoculars are enough for observation. To find it in the sky, you must first locate the brightest star of the Swan constellation – Deneb, then Rho Cygni, 4m bright, about 9 ° E , The cluster is located 3 ° N and 1/4° W of this star.

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Messier_39

Photos (March 2019) taken in Zwardoń. A standard place for PTMA Katowice gather.
Equipment: Canon EOS 6D, Sky-Watcher 200/1000 [mm] on EQ6 Pro.

Composition: APP (4 best frames + Flat + Bias)
Processing: GIMP v2.10.14 + add-ons (Linux)
Lights: 4 x 118 [s], ISO-1600;

M39 (NGC 7092) – Gromada otwarta w gwiazdozbiorze Łabędzia